The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or DPhil; Latin: doctor of philosophy or doctor of philosophy) is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded after a course of study.
PhDs are awarded to programs across many academic fields. Since this is an earned research degree, doctoral students are required to produce original research that transcends the boundaries of knowledge, usually in the form of a thesis, and defend their work against The jury consists of other experts in the field.
Completing a doctorate is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher or scientist in many fields. Individuals with a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor .
(Often abbreviated as “Doctor” or “Doctor”) with their name, although the exact labeling regarding this use may well be up to the practitioner’s ethical discretion.
academic, cultural or social field. Those who teach in universities or work in academic, educational or research fields are generally referred to with this title “professionally and socially in a greeting or in a conversation”.
Alternatively, holders can use post-nominal letters such as “Ph.D..”, “PhD” or “DPhil” (depending on the institution of assignment). However, it is considered incorrect to use both the title and the post-nominals at the same time.
The specific requirements for earning a PhD vary greatly by country, institution and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates.
In the course of research leading up to the degree, students are called PhD students or PhD students; a student who has completed all courses and full exams and is working on a thesis/dissertation is sometimes called a doctorate or a doctoral candidate (see: everything but a thesis).
A student who reaches this level can earn a Philosophy Candidate degree from a number of academies or can earn a master’s degree on the way to a doctorate. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as “PhD ABD”, which means “Everything but thesis”.
A graduate student must submit a project, thesis, or dissertation that typically includes part of original scholarly research, in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
In many countries, applicants must defend their work before a panel of experts nominated by the university.
Universities sometimes award other types of doctoral degrees other than PhDs, such as a Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA) for musical artists, a Doctor of Legal Science (SJD) for law scholars. and Doctor of Education (Ed. D.) for educational studies.
In 2005, the European University Association identified “Salzburg principles”, 10 basic principles for high school diplomas (PhD) during Bologna.
Film and Television Schools, Universities and College of International Arts, Design and Communications and Art Research Association.
In the context of PhD Philosophy and other levels with the same name, the term “philosophy” does not mention the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in the sense.
The meaning of its original Greek, is the “love of wisdom”. In most Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics and philosophy/natural sciences) outside theology, law and medicine (Lecture program Professional.
Professional or technical teaching is known by tradition and in Germany and other places in Europe, the basic faculty of free art is called “Philosophical Department”.
PhD Doctor of Philosophy History
In European medieval universities, the study was held in four faculties: the basic faculty of art and the three departments of theology, medicine and the highest law (classic law and civil law).
All of these faculties have assigned intermediate qualifications (bachelor’s bachelor’s degree of art, theology, soldiers, medicine) and the final definitions.
Originally, the titles of masters and doctorates were used as an alternative to final degrees – the title of Doctorate was simply a formality bestowed on a Teacher/Master of Arts – but towards the end of In the Middle Ages, the terms Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Theology.
Doctor of Laws and Doctor of Medicine became standard in most places (although in German and Italian universities, The term doctor is used for all departments).
PhDs in higher departments are completely different from current PhDs in that they are awarded advanced scholarships, not original research. No thesis or original work required, just residency and exams.
In addition to these qualifications, licensure is available. It was originally a teaching degree, awarded shortly before the recognition of a master’s or doctorate degree from the diocese where the university is located.
But has since evolved into an academic degree in strict accordance with the law. its meaning, especially in continental universities.
According to Keith Allan Noble (1994), the first doctorate was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150.
The doctorate of philosophy was developed in Germany as a final teacher’s certificate in the 17th century. (circa 1652).
There were no PhDs in Germany before 1650 (when they gradually replaced the Master’s as the highest degree; perhaps, one of the earliest PhD students in Germany was Erhard Weigel (PhD). hab., Leipzig, 1652).
In theory, the entire course of study could lead to the succession of Bachelor of Arts, Major in Arts, Master of Arts or Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Medicine or Doctor of Medicine degrees, but Before the modern era, there were many exceptions to this.
PhD Doctor of Philosophy Terminology
The title is abbreviated as Doctor (sometimes Doctor in the United States), from the Latin Doctor of Philosophy, pronounced as three separate letters (/ːpiːeɪtʃˈdiː/, PEE-aych-DEE).
The acronym DPhil, from the English word ‘Doctor of Philosophy‘, was used by a small number of British and Commonwealth universities, including Oxford, before here are York and Sussex, as abbreviations for the degrees of these institutions.
An academic career usually requires a PhD, although in some countries it is possible to achieve relatively advanced positions without a PhD. In North America, professors are increasingly required to have PhDs, and the percentage of faculty with PhDs can be used as a measure of graduation scores.
Motivation can also include a raise, but in many cases this is not the outcome. Research by Bernard H. Casey of the University of Warwick, UK, suggests that, on all subjects, PhDs provide a 26% earning premium over non-accredited graduates, but notes that masters already provide a 23% premium and a 14% degree.
While this is a small profit for the individual (or even the overall deficit when accounting for tuition and lost earnings during training), it says there are worthwhile benefits.
Tell society for additional research training. However, some studies show that highly skilled workers are often less satisfied and less productive in their jobs.
These difficulties are increasingly felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law faculty, who are trying to find employment. Doctoral students may have to pay off debt to graduate.
PhDs are also required in some positions outside of academia, such as research work in major international bodies.
In some cases, executives of certain types of funds may have a PhD. A doctoral degree is sometimes thought of as a necessary qualification in some fields of work, such as in foreign policy consulting organizations: US News wrote in 2013 that “[i] a minimum of a master’s degree is taboo in the world of Washington’s foreign policy.
Unsurprisingly, many are beginning to think of a PhD as a necessary escalation, another case of costly reporting. for potential employers.” Among the university positions go to study Doctoral and Master’s degrees on entry-level basic.”
The Economist published an article in 2010 citing various criticisms of the status of PhDs. These include a prediction by economist Richard B. Freeman argues that, based on pre-2000 data, only 20% of life sciences doctoral students will get faculty jobs in the United States.
In Canada 80% of postdoctoral fellows earn less than or a degree. an average construction worker ($38,600 per year). According to the article, only the fastest developing countries (such as China or Brazil) lack PhDs.
The U.S. higher education system often offers little incentive to move students quickly through doctoral programs and may even provide an incentive to slow them down.
To address this issue, the United States granted a Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 with initial funds from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
The goal of a BA is to reduce the time it takes to complete a degree by focusing on pedagogy rather than research, although the BA still contains a substantial research component.
Germany is one of the few countries to address these issues, and has done so by re-accepting doctoral programs as training for the profession, outside of academia, but still in senior positions.
This development can be seen in a large number of PhD holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering and economics, at the top of administrative and corporate positions.
To a lesser extent, UK research councils have addressed this issue by introducing the EngD since 1992.